Stretching from the desert in the north to the Sudano-Guinean savanna in the south and from dense tropical forests in the extreme southwest to the mountainous regions in the east, Sudan is a natural host to an exceptional diversity of wildlife. At least 34 species of antelope alone have been identified, spread across various habitats. Certain species are confined to specific, localized habitats. Others cross great distances, migrating from one area to another each season. Certain regions of the country, such as the vast flood plains of the Nile and the marshlands of the south, are practically inaccessible throughout the year or during a large part of it. It is in these ecosystems that certain species find ideal refuge from man and thrive in great numbers.
Sudan is the only country in the world with the most incredible variety of big mammals living on land. It should be noted that animal husbandry and stock breeding are well-developed and widespread in Sudan and can alone ensure the supply of animal proteins both for national consumption and for export needs. It is worth noting that Sudan was one of the first countries in Africa to designate wildlife protection areas as early as the 1930s. In Africa, Sudan has a prominent reputation as the region with the most abundant game and thriving wildlife tourism.
Geographically, we can divide the different species of animals that are found in Sudan into:
Sudano-Sahclian and Sudano-Guincan Zones.
Among the species that do not remain attached to a particular habitat but are generally found in the Sudano-Sahelian through Sudano-Guinean zones are the hippopotamus, elephant, warthog, hartebeest, buffalo, ostrich, lion, giraffe, leopard, spotted hyena, wild dog, cheetah, black rhinoceros, ant bear, and white rhinoceros.
Addax can be found in northern and northwestern Sudan’s desert and arid zones. Many of the oryx species have been seen in Sudan for the last 25 years, but it is likely that during certain seasons, some of them migrate from Chad, where recent information reports their presence.
The Red Sea Hills
Nubian ibex, gazelles, and klipspringers are found in the Red Sea hills. The Barbary sheep find a home in the desert hills of northern Sudan.
Sudan has six national parks covering a total area of 60.370 sq. km. and 19 game reserves with a total area of 35,500 sq. km. A total area of around 100,000 sq. km. is designated for wildlife protection.